Fitness is a relative term. It means it is distinguished to different people. The fitness criteria of a fast bowler will be different to that of a goalkeeper. Marathon runners will be hopelessly unfit for weight training. It’s not just developing fitness but understanding ‘fit for what?’
Fitness is a blend of a number of physical qualities. We all need these qualities to a greater or lesser extent.
The principles or components are mentioned below:
1. HEART & LUNG CAPACITY-
One of the most important aspects of physical fitness is the quality of a person’s heart & lung capacity. It can be developed by Aerobic exercises along with breathing exercises.
Flexibility is achieved by stretching the muscle over the joint. This enables the joint to increase its range of motion. Flexibility is important for overall fitness regime and injury prevention.
Strength is defined as the ability of muscles to perform an activity against resistive force. Hence anaerobic exercises are also called strength training. Strength can be best enhanced in gymnasium.
Short term endurance training will improve strength as well as the ability to sustain effort against a moderately high resistance. Endurance training improves the production of energy and the oxygen utilisation that is needed for prolonged exertion with a low resistance such as distance running.
Power is defined as the ability of the muscles to move a load as quickly as possible. For activity such as shot put or high jump you require power in the respective muscles more than anything. Hence, when training for power the aim is to move the load as quickly as possible.
Speed training should be based on a combined program of strength and power development. As the competitive season approaches, specific speed work can be added into daily training.
Agility is understood as the body’s ability to quickly move from one direction to another when in motion. It is a combination of speed, balance and strength in the muscles.