INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE- performers respond differently to the same training. This is due to factors such as the individual’s state of training, the characteristics athletes have inherited from their parents, their personal commitment and their level of physical and mental maturity.
ADAPTION- is the way the body responds to the training programme. The parts of the body that are actively stressed during exercise adapt to those stresses, leading to an increase in performance.
PROGRESSION- the overload imposed on an athlete must be progressive. If a training programme stays at the same intensity for a whole year, adoptions will only be evident at the beginning, after this the body will no longer be overloaded.
REVERSIBILITY- the adaptations that take place as a result of training are all reversible. Adaptations to endurance training can be lost more quickly than it takes to achieve them while strength gains are lost more slowly.
SPECIFICITY- Is the least Complex training principal. In order for a training programme to be effective it must be specific for the sport and position of the performer.
RECOVERY- Is one of the most overlooked principles of training. It is during the recovery sessions that the adaptations to training take place. Recovery sessions may not necessarily mean complete rest. Periods of lower intensity activity will allow the body to adapt without increasing the stress place on it. This period are excellent opportunity for work on technique and tactics.
VARIATION- If training programmes are repetitious, athletes can soon become bored and lose their motivation.
INTENSITY- Is also very important. You must force the body to increase its strength. The most effective way to overload your muscles is to perform one or two sets per exercise, and continue each set until no more repetitions are possible. Challenge yourself!
RECOVERY- once you have overloaded the target muscle group you must then allow for proper recovery and over compensation. This means you must rest long enough to allow recovery.